Writing Mobile apps in ClojureScript in 2021

Still easy? Let's find out...

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Alex Davis
Senior Software Engineer

In early 2017, Frankie Sardo wrote Writing ClojureScript native apps is easy on the JUXT blog. I recently came across it again and was surprised at how much it still applies today. After all, 4 years is an awfully long time in Mobile App tooling years. The basic process of getting CLJS code into a native app is unchanged:

  • ClojureScript gets compiled into JavaScript

  • Javascript is processed by ReactNative and compiled into native code

  • The native code is run on your mobile device (or simulator/emulator)

It’s worth noting that there are other ways to write an app in Clojure(Script) these days. You could use GraalVM with SCI, Gluon, or mix native ObjectiveC/Swift with ClojureScript with this technique. However, I personally think that the React Native approach is by far the most production ready approach currently available.

So what has changed in the last 4 years?

Well, 4 years ago, the most commonly used setup involved Leiningen and Figwheel with a popular framework based on that approach called Re-natal. Unfortunately, those libraries are now showing their age. While you can get away with using old tools when developing for the web, mobile apps are far less forgiving due to constantly breaking APIs.

These days there seem to be two mainstream options if you want to write a native mobile app in Clojure. Shadow-CLJS, a multi-purpose build system with a React Native build target, and Krell, a tool specifically designed to get you from CLJS to React Native while staying out of the way as much as possible. The Krell approach doesn’t need Shadow or Figwheel due to recent advancements in the ClojureScript compiler. However, this blog post will not be focusing on Krell. To explain why that is, we must first look at yet another tool: Expo.


Writing a native mobile app is a lot more involved than writing for the web. Mobile apps have to be approved by the overlords at Google and Apple — and APIs are far more consistent across the multitude of web platforms than those two mobile platforms.

These issues become painfully apparent with raw React Native. Just moving a finished app from your computer onto the App Store can take weeks and the final code is often filled with messy conditional logic due to the differences between iOS and Android.

This is where Expo comes in. Expo is a large set of tools and SDKs which aim to make building React Native apps easier. It lets you build and submit apps without XCode or Android studio, provides many libraries that make developing cross-platform less painful, and even lets you publish new versions of your app without requiring that a new binary be submitted to Apple/Google.

These benefits come with a lot of additional complexity though and there are a fair few limitations to the Expo workflow (this is a good reference). On top of all this, I had lingering scepticism from my last experience with Expo. I tried using Expo 4 years ago and it had been a disaster. Simply trying to make a minor update to an app that was less than 1 year old almost turned into a full rewrite. Expo can’t build apps running old SDK versions and most of the libraries I’d used had breaking changes when I tried to update them. Despite all this, I was assured that Expo is more stable now and that it is always possible to “eject” myself from Expo and continue on the raw React Native path should anything become a problem. We’ll see how that turned out for me later…

The Project

My plan was to see if it was possible to design, build, and release a reasonably polished app to both app stores over a 2 week holiday from work (shoutout to Covid-19 for making a hacking holiday possible… by making travel holidays impossible). Since I was on holiday, I had set myself a hard limit of 2 hours computer time per day, which left me with a total of 14 hours to complete my project (though, somewhat predictably, I spent around double that on it in the end).

Below is a demo video showing the app and its features, and here is the source code.

A brief recount of my holiday (I go into more detail here)

I started by cloning this template, which confidently claims to be “The fastest way a ClojureScript coder can get started with React Native”, and set off. The initial setup of the various Expo and React Native tools was surprisingly smooth, and within my first 1-hour stint, I had a REPL from my Emacs into a working app running on my iPhone (via Expo Go). The below video is the ~45min live stream of my first day working on the project:

After a few days, however, I grew frustrated with writing these render functions in ClojureScript. Doing the business logic was great; Clojure has never failed to impress with its ability to easily manipulate complex data structures. However, my view code contained so much interop that it didn’t really look like Clojure anymore. Here’s a snippet:

(defn root
  (let [scheme (rn/useColorScheme)
        dark-mode? (= "dark" scheme)
        !navigation-ref (atom {})]
    [:> nav/NavigationContainer
     {:ref (fn [el] (reset! !navigation-ref el))
      :theme (set! (-> ^js nav/DarkTheme .-colors .-background)
                   (if dark-mode? "black" "white"))
     (let [stack (rn-stack/createStackNavigator)
           screen (fn screen [props] [:> (-> ^js stack .-Screen) props])]
       [:> (.-Navigator ^js stack)
        (screen {:name "View All Routines"
                 :component (r/reactify-component
                             #(views/routines % animated))})
        (screen {:name "View Single Routine"
                 :component (r/reactify-component #(views/screen-main % animated))})])]))

(defn start
  (expo/render-root (r/as-element [:f> root])))

Now, this may not seem so bad. But it’s tedious to constantly translate code from JavaScript. I found myself continually thinking, “I wish I could just use copy-paste this bit.”

So after reading an inspiring blog post by David Nolen (as I write this, he has also just released a talk on the same topic), I decided I would aim for:

  • All business logic and data manipulation would be done in ClojureScript

  • All React Native/Expo code would be written in JavaScript (or Typescript)

Because React Native comes with its own bundler, I was able to import my .tsx components using js/require like so:

(ns app.components)

(def RoutineList (.-default (js/require "../src/stories/RoutineList.tsx")))
(def ViewCurrentActivity (.-default (js/require "../src/stories/ViewCurrentActivity.tsx")))
(def CreateRoutine (.-default (js/require "../src/stories/CreateRoutine.tsx")))

I could then use these components as I would any other React component:

(ns app.views
   [re-frame.core :as rf]
   [app.components :as c]))

(defn routine-list
  [:> c/RoutineList
   {:routines @(rf/subscribe [:my-routines])
    :handlePlay #(rf/dispatch [:play %])}])

(defn current-activity
  [:> c/ViewCurrentActivity
   {:activity @(rf/subscribe [:current-activity])
    :handlePause #(rf/dispatch [:pause %])

(defn create-routine
  [:> c/CreateRoutine
   {:handleCreate #(rf/dispatch [:add-routine %])}])

This left me with the following in ClojureScript:

  • The initial root function from above. (Though in hindsight, I wish I had lifted more of that into JavaScript, as later modifications to it were painful.)

  • Re-frame handlers and subscriptions for global state and events

  • Pure functions for manipulating the app’s various data structures

  • A views namespace acting as the bridge between CLJS and JS (shown above)

And this in JavaScript:

  • Pure functions which accepted props passed down from my CLJS and returned React Native components. Any buttons or UI components that changed the global state of the app would do so using functions passed down in those props.

  • React hooks for local state (e.g. forms)

  • Utility functions for dealing with certain Expo/React Native libraries

The utility functions could easily have been written in ClojureScript too. Still, I often just wanted to copy functions from a library’s documentation and use it largely unchanged, such as in this push notification example:

// src/stories/utils.js

export async function schedulePushNotification(activity, seconds, callback) {
  if (activity && activity?.name && seconds) {
    const id = await Notifications.scheduleNotificationAsync({
      content: {
        _contentAvailable: true,
        title: `It's time to start '${activity.name}'!`,
        body: activity?.description || activity?.message || "Have fun!",
        ios: { sound: true },
        sound: "default",

      trigger: { seconds: seconds },

// src/app/components.cljs
(def utils (js/require "../src/stories/utils.js"))
(def send-notification (.-schedulePushNotification utils))

// src/app/handlers.cljs
(c/send-notification (clj->js activity)
                     #(rf/dispatch [:notification-scheduled id %]))

Overall this approach worked great. If I had more time, I would also have liked to set up StoryBook, which would allow for a much more robust and easily testable UI development environment.

This solution wasn’t without its frustrations, however. I am a JavaScript novice — having only ever used it on side-projects — and I found it quite painful sometimes. Reagent and friends do a reasonable job of hiding the JS nasties from you in the web world, but I found it to be a different story in React Native land. Overall, I definitely recommend trying this hybrid approach.

Speaking of learning new things, styling mobile apps turned out to be very different from the web, as there is no DOM, HTML or even really CSS. React Native does have tools for writing CSS to style your components, but there are some differences that can catch you out. I won’t go further into React Native’s differences from React here, but don’t let the name fool you; they are very different beasts.

I made a ~10-minute rapid walkthrough of the (more or less) final codebase which goes into a little more detail:

The Good

So as mentioned above, there were a lot of good things about my setup:

  • Though I wasn’t too confident with JavaScript, I found using it to write my views a much more pleasant experience than spending ages translating JavaScript examples into ClojureScript.

  • Having a REPL connected to my actual phone was super cool, and very useful. I really missed the REPL when I was in JS land.

  • Expo did save me a lot of time. Building my app and submitting it to the app store was much easier than I remember from four years ago, and although I used a Mac, I could easily have repeated the same process on a Linux machine.

  • To my surprise, when I finally got an Android emulator working on my M1 Mac, things actually just worked with only a few minor issues.

The Bad

It can’t all be good news. There were a fair few painful moments on my journey — though I admit that several are likely due to my inexperience/incompetence.

There turned out to be several third-party libraries and native features that I couldn’t use unless I was ejected from Expo. These included:

  • A native context menu

  • Integration with HealthKit/Google Fitness

  • Timers that worked correctly when the app was backgrounded (this was a big one for my app in particular)

  • Integration with native Audio playlist controls

Expo also adds significant bulk to your app by bundling a bunch of SDKs. These SDKs include analytics libraries like FacebookAds, which I wasn’t too happy about. As a result, I spent an entire day in my second week trying to eject from Expo and get set up with XCode, but it quickly became apparent that I would not have anything usable at my 2-week deadline if I continued down that path. For all the bugs and quirks that Expo has, XCode was worse. It simply would not build even the unchanged React Native example. (As a side note, I did eventually solve these problems, which I’ve documented in Getting XCode 12 to Build React Native Projects on an M1 Mac.) Expo does have an answer to these issues called EAS Build but as I write this it is still in alpha and is not available to the public.

The last issue I had was hot code reloading. The React Native refresh tool would often interfere even when it was turned off, the expo process would regularly crash after saving a file, and sometimes I’d even get an old version of the code loaded, causing all sorts of confusion.

To give you a clearer picture of what the hot code reloading situation looked like (and why it wasn’t such a big deal) take a look at this short video:

After all these troubles with overly complex build tools, and now that I am no longer constrained by my arbitrary deadline, I will be exploring Krell in my next project. I think that given a longer timeframe, the simplicity of Krell will save you more time than all of Expo’s magic whilst leaving you with at least some of your sanity. If there is enough interest (heck… even if there isn’t) I will likely move my app away from Expo and see how things are on the Krell side. Hopefully the grass really is greener there.


In conclusion, I would say I have learnt the following things in my brief adventure into ClojureScript mobile app development:

  • It is indeed possible to build a somewhat useable app and deploy it to the app store in 30 hours (though I did have a slightly uglier version downloadable via TestFlight/Google Play at my 2 weeks/14-hour deadline)

  • I had to compromise on many features because they were not supported by Expo, though I cannot yet say whether starting with Expo was a mistake

  • Not using Expo involves a lot more initial setup, but it is something I will be trying in the future, as the complexity that Expo brings with it has left a sour taste in my mouth

  • Despite some frustrations, I actually did enjoy the experience overall, though I’m not considering a career change any time soon 😅

  • ClojureScript is undeniably better than JavaScript (at least on this blog 😄), but a hybrid ClojureScript + JavaScript approach works really well, even in the absence of JavaScript experience

If you are interested in the app I created during my experiment, you can find it on the app stores here:

And you can find the source code at https://github.com/armincerf/kalm-mobile.

If you want to see more detail of my experience building the app, you can check my personal blog here, containing clips from my live streams of the development process.

And finally, if you’re not convinced that ClojureScript can be used for real production applications, check out this Status project. It’s a massive (6.5k+ commits) fully-featured mobile app built entirely in ClojureScript!

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