Feb 21, 2020

Babashka: A quick example

author picture
Malcolm Sparks
CTO & Co-founder

At JUXT, we try to reduce the number of tools we use to the bare minimum.

The fewer tools we need to learn to do our work, the more time we can devote to learning each tool well.

Our standard operating system is GNU/Linux (Arch Linux), which we use on both developer laptops and servers. Our standard document format is AsciiDoc (of the Asciidoctor variety). All our documents (contracts, client reports, web pages, blog articles, policy documents, etc.) are stored in AsciiDoc and we generate HTML and/or PDF from these. Adding in git and keybase, we’ve pieced together a capable company document production, approval and management system.

Building document PDFs with make and asciidoctor-pdf

Sometimes, a document might require some custom build logic. For example, a report might contain a table of data extracted from a Crux database. Naturally we use GNU Make and bash to knit together these customised builds, but whenever you try to do something complex, you can end up thrashing around in the long grass.

For example, we have a document named ETH001.adoc which includes an image stored as ETH001/boy-and-computer.jpg. The PDF version of the document can be generated using a Make rule:

target/pdf/%.pdf: %.adoc brand/juxt-theme.yml
   asciidoctor-pdf -r asciidoctor-diagram -o $@ $<

This means that a change to the original Asciidoc source file, or a change to the theme we use to build the PDFs, will result in the asciidoctor-pdf executable being run and the resulting PDF rebuilt.

However, since the PDF also contains images, if those images change (sometimes we’re in the process of enhancing images in Gimp), we want the PDF to be rebuilt. But how is it possible to let Make know about these dependencies?

Well, we could go through the source file and look for any image:: tags. Here’s one:


Then we can add an additional dependency rule inside the Makefile:

target/pdf/ETH001.pdf: ETH001/boy-and-computer.jpg

Maintaining these rules might be a pain, and we’ll quickly forget to do it. My sed and awk skills might be up to the tasks of grep’ing out the include:: lines of each file, but … I’d much rather be using Clojure. I’m always struck by the startling contrast between the consistency and elegance of the Unix line-by-line data processing model and the inconsistency and ugliness of the syntax of the individual tools. This is what makes Lisps such as Clojure all the more extraordinary - an easy-to-learn, consistent syntax which can scale up to the tackle the most ambitious of problems.

Until now, I probably wouldn’t bother writing a Clojure program for this task. Clojure is a little too slow to start up to be suitable for scripting.

Enter Babashka!

Babashka is a Clojure-like scripting language written by @borkdude (Michiel Borkent), of clj-kondo fame. Babashka is close enough to Clojure so I can avoid having to clutter my memory with the myriad of different syntaxes of Unix tools (bash, sed, awk, grep). I can leverage my Clojure familiarity for the boring task of writing scripts.

So let’s write a script (depend_images.clj) that will go through our 50 odd AsciiDoc files, extract out each line that brings in an image, and print a Make dependency rule between the document and that image:

  [adoc (.listFiles ( "."))
   :when (.isFile adoc)
   :let [[_ basename] (re-matches #"(.*).adoc" (.getName adoc))]
   :when basename
   line (line-seq (io/reader adoc))
   :let [[_ match] (re-matches #"image::(.*)\[.*\]" line)]
   :when match]
   (format "target/pdf/%s.pdf: %s" basename match)))

In our Makefile we can add a depend target that will run this script:

        bb depend_images.clj >

We can run the target with make:

$ make depend

On my machine, that takes about 170ms. That’s perfectly acceptable for my use-case.

The resulting file ( can be included in the Makefile with the following:


That’s it.


“Remember, learn Lisp and use it everywhere. Everything else is mind clutter.”


I’m looking forward to reaching for babashka at times where I’d normally reach for bash (or awk, or sed). Of course, there are plenty of alternative solutions to these simple problems. However, it’s a tribute to the design of Clojure that the language feels so naturally consistent, and can achieve similar feats to a compendium of Unix tools, each with their own syntactic idiosyncrasies.

For many many years, I’ve wished for a Clojure-like replacement for classic shell-scripting. This may just be it.

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